The Kyoto Protocol was developed as an international governance system implemented under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to regulate greenhouse gas levels in the Earth`s atmosphere (Grubb et al., 1999). The protocol was first adopted at a United Nations meeting in Kyoto, Japan in 1997 and officially entered into force in 2005, after being formally ratified by the required number of nations (UNFCCC, 1997). As a system of governance, the protocol was signed by national governments and managed under the aegis of the United Nations. Participating nations have agreed to meet certain GHG emission targets set out in the protocol and to review and meet them externally by United Nations agencies. The protocol should serve as a framework with which participating countries have been able to cooperate to stabilize the concentration of GHG in the Earth`s atmosphere. Greenhouse gases in the protocol included CO2, CH4, N2O, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride. The IPCC prepares comprehensive assessment reports on the state of scientific, technical and socio-economic knowledge on climate change, its effects and future risks, as well as options to reduce the rate at which climate change occurs. It also prepares special reports on topics agreed by Member State governments, as well as methodological reports containing guidelines for the establishment of greenhouse gas inventories. To learn more about the reports, click here. The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty that extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which requires States Parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that global warming is taking place (part 1) and (part two) it is very likely that human-caused CO2 emissions are the majority cause. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, and came into force on 16 February 2005. There are currently 192 parties (Canada withdrew from the protocol as of December 2012). Since May 2013, 191 countries and a regional economic organization (EC) have ratified the agreement, representing more than 61.6% of schedule I emissions in 1990.
 One of the 191 ratifying countries, Canada, has relinquished the protocol. The agreement is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), adopted at the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, which has not set legally binding restrictions on emissions or enforcement mechanisms. Only parties to the UNFCCC can become parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 at the third meeting of the UNFCCC Conference of Parties (COP 3) in Kyoto (