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Second Freedom Agreement

The sixth freedom not officially modified is the right to transport passengers or goods between two points in a foreign country, while they stop in their country of origin. The second freedom allows technical stops without embarking or disembarking passengers or cargo. [6]:31 It is the right to stop in one country only for refuelling or other maintenance work en route to another country. [2]:146 Due to the greater autonomy of modern commercial aircraft, second freedom rights are now relatively little exercised by airlines, but they are often used by air cargo carriers and are more or less universal between countries. [11] Fifth freedom traffic rights are requested by airlines wishing to benefit from unserved or underserved routes or by airlines whose flights already stop at a place permitted by the second freedom. [6]:32 Governments (e.g. B Thailand) can sometimes promote the traffic of the fifth freedom to promote tourism by increasing the number of places available. On the other hand, there may be reactionary pressure to avoid too much liberalisation of traffic rights in order to protect an airline`s commercial interests. [14]:110 In the 1990s, the Fifth Freedom sparked controversy in Asia due to the losses suffered by airlines in the countries where they were offered. [20]:16-19 In particular to protest against the service models of U.S.

airlines in Asia, some nations have become less generous in granting fifth-freedom transportation rights, while traffic with the sixth freedom has gained in importance for Asian airlines. [14]:112 The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is the United Nations supervisory authority for commercial aviation. It was created at the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation of 1944. ICAO is working to reach general agreement on international civil aviation standards, practices and guidelines among its 191 member States. .