Unfortunately, there is little agreement among the various American judgments and textbooks as to whether such a separate doctrine even exists or under what circumstances it would apply. There does not appear to be a registered court decision in which it has been enforced. Conceptually, however, doctrine, to the extent that it exists, would be an important exception to the general principle that awards are not subject to judicial review. U.S. Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan (1913-1915) worked vigorously to promote international arbitration treaties, but his efforts were thwarted by the outbreak of World War I. Bryan negotiated 28 treaties that promised to settle disputes before war broke out between the signatory states and the United States. He made several attempts to negotiate a treaty with Germany, but ultimately never succeeded. The agreements, officially known as “Treaties for the Promotion of Peace”, establish arbitration procedures, not arbitration.  Arbitration treaties were negotiated after the war, but attracted far less attention than the negotiating mechanism created by the League of Nations. If you need help drafting an arbitration agreement or understanding an arbitration agreement that has been given to you, you should contact an arbitration lawyer. By far the most important international instrument in arbitration law is the 1958 New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, generally referred to simply as the “New York Convention”. Virtually all major trading countries are signatories, and only a handful of countries are not parties to the New York Agreement.
In the case of ad hoc arbitration, arbitral tribunals shall be appointed by the parties or by an appointing authority chosen by the parties. After the tribunal has been formed, the appointing authority usually has no other role and the arbitration is headed by the court. In contrast, arbitration between organizations that both have strong resources tends to be more balanced, as in the case of a company and a union trying to resolve a collective agreement or two companies arguing over possible patent infringement. It is often easier to enforce arbitral awards abroad than court decisions. Under the 1958 New York Convention, an arbitral award rendered in one State Party may, as a general rule, be freely enforced in any other State Party, subject to specific and limited submissions. Only foreign arbitral awards shall be enforced in accordance with the New York Convention. An arbitral award is foreign if the award was made in a State other than the State of recognition or if foreign procedural law has been applied.  In most cases, these disputes are settled without being made public of their existence, as the loser voluntarily complies with them, despite the fact that UNCITRAL issued a rule for the disclosure of investor-state disputes in 2014.  An arbitration clause usually states that all disputes arising out of the larger contract will be subject to binding arbitration .. . .